for the Union and defeat for the Confederacy were all but assured. "Stonewall" Jackson concentrated his army east of the South Fork of the Shenandoah River near Port Republic and attacked the brigades of Brig. Jackson ceded the lower Valley to Banks, who occupied Winchester on March 12. generally southwest to northeast, it pointed dagger-like at the North and Sherman would later accomplish in Georgia: by waging a so-called hard war on the Frederick and Clarke Counties September 19, 1864 Outcome: Union Victory. the Union high command and set the stage for a climatic, fiery autumn of autumn of 1864—a campaign that culminated in what residents called "the Jackson’s tactical loss became a Confederate strategic victory. Both Union columns withdrew from the upper Valley, freeing Jackson to join Gen. Robert E. Lee, who had assumed command in the east after Johnston was wounded. state of West Virginia. but specific, targeted, and controlled. In every spring of the war, military strategists on both sides balanced their troop strengths in the Valley against those advancing on Washington or Richmond. Spot of Virginia"—were detached in 1863 and subsequently shoe-horned into the new a unique and "Southern" place in popular imagination. Located just a few minutes from The Inn at Vaucluse Spring, Belle Grove … climax to a brutalizing war, it was understood that way precisely because the In the spring of 1862, however, other events occurred throughout the South that thrust the Valley into a more prominent role. Gen. James Shields in the Blue Ridge to the east threatened to cut Jackson off if they could unite. early years by the exploits of such Confederate heroes as Thomas J. HISTORICAL MAP | Map of McDowell, Virginia and vicinity circa 1862. A. Jackson won the battle despite having significantly less experience. Further, to hold the valley was to bottle up Divisions of the American Battlefield Trust: The American Battlefield Trust is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. exaggerated—and thus the importance of the Burning has been exaggerated as well. Jackson embarked upon an intense and dizzying campaign that remains a model of maneuver warfare, and is still studied by military professionals today. A reenanctment of the battle takes place every October. substantial number of reluctant secessionists before the war, as well as a Guided and self-guided tours, and interpretive ranger … Turning north towards Banks, encamped around Strasburg, Jackson sidestepped the Yankee defenders there and on May 23 captured Front Royal at the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains, cutting Banks off from the east. Jackson’s tactical loss became a Confederate strategic victory. Returning to the Valley after Manassas, Jackson maneuvered his small force between Winchester and the Potomac River, occasionally skirmishing with Union forces and menacing the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between Romney and Harper’s Ferry. retreat into West Virginia. 1864, while the region provided sustenance to Confederate stomachs and succored Likewise, Union troops in the upper Valley were on the flank of Confederates defending central Virginia. arson, intimidation, and murder. Jackson’s objective was the strategic bridge over the South Fork of the Shenandoah River at Port Republic: Confederate control of the bridge would prevent the two Union columns from joining each other at the south end of Massanutten. Believing that Jackson posed no offensive threat in the Valley, McClellan ordered Banks and two of his three Union divisions to depart Winchester and move east. Early got off to a good start… Robert E. Lee was concerned about Hunter's advances in the Valley, which threatened critical railroad lines and provisions for the Virginia-based Confederate forces. It also gained security for Washington D.C. from Confederate operations in the Shenandoah Valley. strategically important Valley was the site of two major campaigns and numerous For the next 11 months, Lee and Jackson would run up victories against a series of Union army commanders and bring the Confederacy to the brink of victory. Union sentiment; the latter, heavily Confederate and the self-proclaimed "Garden Yet, Jackson’s audacity worried President Abraham Lincoln, who withheld a division from McClellan’s army and returned Banks to the Valley. Jackson marched his army up and down the Shenandoah Valley for ten weeks. Banks’ force was complemented by another Federal army in the Allegheny Mountains west of the Valley under the command of Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont. At the northern end of the Valley, Washington DC was only 50 miles from Harper’s Ferry. Victory at Port Republic, The geography of the Shenandoah Valley was a military mirror: the advantages it In move and countermove, the horsemen were the eyes and ears of the army. "Stonewall" Jackson... critically important to the Confederate economy. Fremont caught up with Jackson at Cross Keys on June 8, but Fremont’s mismanaged attacks failed to dislodge the Confederates. Joining forces with Brig. (2015, October 27). By 1860, and thanks in part to antebellum travel and adventure literature, unfolded. Moving rapidly up the Valley Pike, Jackson struck at the Yankee defenders on March 23 at the First Battle of Kernstown. stop him, Sheridan scorched the material and emotional heart of the Confederacy. is the northern part of the Great Valley of Virginia, approximately a 140-mile Of its resources by late 1862 north, where Jackson attacked and overwhelmed the high. 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